Linalool you to Sleep

Sometimes sleep just won’t come.  Insomnia is a problem for one in three people in the US, according to the CDC, and five percent of people use prescription medication to combat this tossing and turning. You know those nights, we’ve all had them. Whether you’re laying awake thinking of the test you have the next day, a job interview or money many things weighing on your mind and no matter what you do you just cannot fall asleep. You toss, you turn, you count sheep, maybe pick up your phone to search the internet or turn on the TV just to zone out. Sometimes there is absolutely nothing that you can do to force yourself to sleep. No matter how tired you are, sleep will not come. Next thing you know the sun is streaming through your bedroom windows and you feel as though you haven’t even had an hour of sleep. Oh and to make the torture worse, the day must still go on. You still have to go to school or work...your daily routines don’t stop and to add to the misery you have to at least attempt to not look like you’re the walking dead.

There isn’t one cause for insomnia thus prevention is complex.  The best recommendation is cognitive behavioral therapy which is a more long term, holistic approach to changing the beliefs and attitudes that trigger sleepless nights.  Essential oils like lavender and Cannabis have long been recommended for aiding in a good night’s sleep.  Research has suggested that the chemical composition in these complex oils stimulate different wave patterns, like theta brain waves, that can actually lead to deep sleep.


Just looking at fields of lavender gives me a relaxing feeling almost as much as the plant itself.  Lavender is a common flower with relaxing properties, many suggest placing lavender in your pillow to help with sleepless nights.  The major terpene associated with this plant and its essential oil is Linalool, which can make up to 50% of the oil’s composition.  Other common terpenes associated with this oil are myrcene and caryophyllene.  In Cannabis, Linalool is associated with a floral aroma and a relaxing, indica feeling.  The strain Grand Daddy Purple and Jet Fuel Cannabis derived terpenes are well known for their high linalool content.  


Linalool is a terpene alcohol with two enantiomers, meaning that the same chemical structure can be represented as mirror images, much like your left and right hands.  Each structural form interacts differently with the human olfactory sense and can have more sweet, floral notes or a woody citrusy scent.  As with wine, the nuances in flavors and aroma are complex and depend on the whole composition of chemicals within the plant and how they interact with the equally complex human genetics.


Now for a comedic break for those parents who could sleep if they didn’t have some crazy freakin kid keeping them up…Go The F@ck To Sleep read by Samuel L. Jackson.



Wake Up and Smell the Pinene

A cup of joe is a necessity for many morning routines as you try and pry your eyes open.  Coffee beans with their high concentrations of caffeine, usually in the form of a hot drink, are almost culturally ubiquitous; from the Italian espresso to the delightful Kona coffee of Hawaii.  Likewise, sativa strains of Cannabis have long been sought after for their “pick me up” effects and are a common daytime recommendation for focus, energy and creativity.  High concentrations of pinene, in particular alpha pinene, have been associated with these effects and is commonly found in many sativa strains effects like Jack Herer.  As well, alpha and beta pinene are the main components in our Gorilla Glue Cannabis derived terpenes. 


Pinene, a main component of pine tree sap, is a more complex terpene than the previously discussed terps limonene and mycrene.  One difference is that pinene is a bicyclic terpene, meaning it has two carbon ring structures attached to each other.  Carbon ring structures are rad in nature (like freakin DNA!) as they are biosynthetically complex to make and have very interesting biological interactions in plants and animals.  Along with this complexity comes four major Cannabis terpene structures of pinene, alpha and beta and the +/- enantiomers of both.  The difference between alpha and beta versions of pinene is a shifting of the double bond from inside the ring to outside of the ring which moves hydrogen atoms around as well as positive and negative forces.  And the enantiomeric variations are the same molecular structure but in a mirror images, like your right and left hand.  These minor shifts in molecular structure have significant changes to the interactions of these molecules with biological organisms and for us Cannabis lovers that means different flavors, aromas and effects.


The Science Is Strong In This One

These different variations of the terpene structures are core to the synergy present in naturally derived essential oils and why Cannabis derived terpenes or essential oils are considered a premium medicinal product for those knowledgeable in the industry.  Pure, isolated terpenes are frequently an option to Cannabis derived terpenes and can create products at a competitive price point with varied success in recreating flavors, aromas and effects similar to well known strains.  At Trinity Terpenes we believe that nature knows best and that the synergy that has evolved within the trichome of the Cannabis plant is the best quality medicinal and recreational product.  This is why we produce our products from Cannabis extracts and we believe it is why thousands of people have tried and loved our products over the last year.  It’s Synergy Evolved.

WTF Was I Talking About?

Dementia and other forms of cognition loss, like Alzheimer's disease, are quickly becoming an epidemic.  In fact Alzheimer’s disease has been estimated to be on path to be the leading cause of death in the elderly over 65 by 2050.  Pinene, as well as many of the other terpenes or cannabinoids of Cannabis, have exciting medicinal possibilities for dementia.  Some of pinene’s medicinal benefits include reducing inflammation, increasing bronchodilation (take a deep breath here…) and being an antibiotic.  Pinene has also been discovered to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.  Many researchers have linked forms of dementia like Alzheimer's to the body’s inability to control the level of this enzyme in the neural pathways of the brain.  Without proper control of this enzyme, chemicals that are transmitted between neurons do not function properly and as a result the brain is less capable.   

So, next time someone tells you that weed will make you dumb, just say you are inhibiting the levels of acetylcholinesterase in order to increase the functional capacity of your neural network!!  

I Wanna Get High on Mangoes

The herb is more than just a powerful potion...people learning about what they smoking.


Educated consumers around the world are taking these Cypress Hill lyrics to heart and in turn the industry is listening.  With the success of medical and recreational Cannabis access around the country patients and customers are demanding knowledge about the products they consume.  If you walk into a dispensary and ask your budtender for their recommendation on flower their first question would probably be, “Do you prefer sativa or indica?”  Although these are the most common classifications for Cannabis today, what makes a sativa uplifting or an indica couch-lock you with the munchies...let’s just say it’s complicated.  Cannabis contains unknown hundreds if not thousands of chemical compounds, many unique to the plant, that have made it important to human society for millennia.  


Google Mangos and Weed and you’ll have your pick of Reddit articles, YouTube videos and blogs (like mine) saying that it’s a must try to get you higher  And the main hypothesis as to why boils down to one of the most common Cannabis terpenes - Myrcene.  When analyzing the volatile components of different varieties of mangoes researchers have shown some credibility to this with several varieties showing 30-50% of the total composition to be myrcene.  However, another look shows alternating varieties with 50-60% terpinolene or up to 75% 3-carene.  The answers in nature are never easy.


Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC has been understood for decades to be the primary cannabinoid responsible for the psychoactive activity of Cannabis.  The mode of action responsible for your high is the interaction of the THC molecule and the endocannabinoid receptor in your brain, CB1.  The blood-brain barrier is a grouping of cells that selectively restricts the movement of chemicals to the brain.  Medicinally, it has been shown that myrcene increases cell permeation allowing for a more fluid cell membrane.  So, simply it could be understood that increased myrcene concentration in the blood will make the blood-brain barrier more fluid, thus allowing more THC molecules to pass into the brain and AHHHHHH…...what?????    


Myrcene is one of the most common terpenes present in Cannabis strains.  The aroma of this terp can vary based on complexity and interaction with other aromatics present in your flower.  Earthy or herbaceous in some strains, myrcene can also have characteristics of fruit or spicy in others.  Sour Diesel and Harlequin are two strains with a large concentration of myrcene and each are attributed with a very earthy pungency.  Then there’s Agent Orange and Candy Jack, each myrcene and limonene rich, that have very complex fruity aromas and flavors.    


Myrcene and Inflammation

The medicinal benefits of plant essential oils have been utilized throughout human history.  Until prohibition, medicinal Cannabis was a cure all found in many neighborhood drug stores for ailments.  As we enter the end of prohibition around the world many of the medicinal benefits of Cannabis are now being researched by scientists.  Recently, a team of scientists in Portugal discovered that “myrcene has significant anti-inflammatory [effects in human cells] and, thus, its ability to halt or, at least, slow down cartilage destruction and osteoarthritis progression warrants further investigation.”  Much more research is needed, however the medicinal properties of the variety of chemical compounds found in Cannabis are being understood today more than at any time in human history.  


WTF is a Terp?

If you walk into a dispensary and ask your budtender for their recommendation on flower their first question would probably be, “Do you prefer sativa or indica?”  Although these are the most common classifications for Cannabis today, what makes a sativa uplifting or an indica couch-lock you with the munchies...let’s just say it’s complicated.  Cannabis contains unknown hundreds if not thousands of chemical compounds, many unique to the plant, that have made it important to human society for millennia.  What are these chemicals and how do they produce the medicinal and recreational effects that we hold so dear?  This blog aims to provide a science based approach to answering some of these questions through a series of blog posts focused on terpenes and their medicinal and recreational contributions to Cannabis.


At Trinity Terpenes we believe that nature knows best and that the synergy that has evolved within the trichome of the Cannabis plant is the best quality medicinal and recreational product.  This is why we produced our first product solely from Cannabis extracts and we believe it is why thousands of people have tried and loved our products over the last year.  It’s Synergy Evolved.

WTF is a Terp?

Ever wonder what makes Cannabis strains so different they can smell like a skunk, a pineapple, rat piss or a blueberry?  Or why Blue Dream make me chill but causes my friend to get dizzy?  WTF is going on with this plant! There’s a lot more unknown about the chemical compounds found in Cannabis than known.  What was coined as the “Entourage Effect” to describe the synergy in the full spectrum of chemicals from Cannabis and their effects on the human body might as well have been called the “I Have No Clue Effect”.  Research is slowly teasing apart the mysterious evolutionary dance Cannabis and Humans have had but many more lifetimes of research are ahead of us.


The well known star of Cannabis most recently has been tetrahydrocannabinol or THC.  Recreational breeding during prohibition focused on THC almost exclusively as the main psychoactive compound driving your high.  Prohibition’s easing across the country has provided opportunity to explore and understand the diverse array of compounds found in Cannabis.  Cannabidiol or CBD has recently moved into the spotlight as another cannabinoid with medicinal benefits linked to helping with seizures, anxiety and inflammation to name a few.  THC and CBD are only two of over 100 known compounds in this one class of chemistry from Cannabis.  The full spectrum of cannabinoids together interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system to produce some of the medicinal or recreational effects for which Cannabis has been utilized for.      


Terpenes are another class of chemical compounds that are a large component of plant essential oils and are all derived from a similar structural formula called an isoprene unit.  Like a nerd with a box of legos, the molecular machinery inside of the Cannabis trichome can piece these isoprene units together to form a large variety of terpenes found in nature.  Cannabinoids alone are mainly tasteless and flavorless.  Terpenes, along with the diverse array of compounds in the essential oil extract of Cannabis, provide each strain with its aroma, flavor and many medicinal and recreational attributes.   Over 30,000 terpenes have been discovered so far and by some accounts Cannabis can make over 90% of terpenes on Earth...hence why one strain can smell like diesel and another like strawberry.  Just understand that like an iceberg, much of what is there is unseen, or unknown, in Cannabis.


Let’s All Just Calm Down

Flavor, aroma and effect are the three distinguishing characteristics of essential oils.  Limonene is a terpene found in high concentrations in citrus fruit giving them their distinctive fruit flavor and scent.  Lemon Haze and Jack the Ripper are some strains with high limonene concentrations, as well as our Trinity Terpenes Tahoe OG.  Take a sniff of these buds or extracts and you’ll have a scent reminiscent of squeezing a lemon or lime.  Behind this citrusy smell you’ll also find nuances from the myriads of other compounds present giving each strain its uniqueness.


Citrus essential oils have been used in many cultures to provide medicinal benefits and high limonene concentrations in your strains or extracts can be similar.  The energizing effects associated with sativa strains allowing for daytime concentration are attributes of limonene in essential oils.  As well, many calming and stress relieving properties have been associated with citrus oils.  I’ve placed some of our Tahoe OG terps on my temples and have had a relaxed feeling come over me...but I may be biased!  We’ll get into the science behind limonene and stress in a bit, but first I’ll try and answer a question I get every day.  


Synergy Evolved - The Power of Cannabis Terpenes


Why Are Cannabis Terpenes Different?  Can’t I just take some myrcene, limonene and pinene bottles, mix them together and get the same result?  In our FAQ you will start to see answers to many of the questions my partners and I have fielded from customers all over the world this past year as we built Trinity Terpenes.  It’s still a work in progress and please ask us your questions as that’s the reason for the blog, to educate.  But let me take you through the answer to this difficult question with limonene.



The limonene molecule looks kind of like a stick figure missing its arms - but if you split it in half you can see that it’s just two isoprene molecules stitched together.  Think back to the nerd with the legos, each lego has the same shape but there are different colored legos or some may come with lightsabers.  So if you and a friend get a pile of legos to make the Death Star you can end up with similar shapes, but with different colors and maybe yours has Darth Vader on top...similarly, not all molecules are exactly the same.  The genes that encode “MAKE LIMONENE” in Lemon Haze and Jack the Ripper may have a similar story, but the words that make up that story differ slightly.  Like the game telephone, the book of life started the same but through whispers from animals to plants to bugs the wording changed.  

Terp Science by The Kush Scientist @kushscientist


Introducing Vape Ready Zero

Vape Ready Zero is our patent-pending formulation provided as a mixing agent for your THC or CBD vapes.  Our terpene and flavored Vape Ready products allow a simple, drop in solution to processors looking to add terpene effects or natural flavors to their distillate or isolates.  However we have had many customers requesting our Vape Ready Zero formulation to add as a mixing agent to their brand terpenes or flavors.

Vape Ready Zero provides all the benefits of bioavailability and reduced harshness of terpenes that our Vape Ready products are known for without added terpenes or flavorings.  As a cost competitive option to premium mixing agents, VRT Zero is available in 25mL, 250mL and 1L volumes from our e-commerce and distribution partners.  Inquire today!


What is MCT?

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) are molecules that have a glycerol backbone with three fatty acid chain and are derived from natural, plant oils.  A major difference between MCT and other mixing agents is that MCTs have both water-loving and oil-loving molecular properties.  This characteristic has been shown to increase bioavailability of active compounds that do not mix well with water.  MCT acts like a medium between the oil liking actives (cannabinoids and terpenes) and your blood by attaching to both.  This may be one advantage over other products if used as a mixing agent as the formulation could enhance the active ingredients.

Triglycerides are a diverse group of molecules that vary in size and structure and can be classified in three forms; short chain (SCT), medium chain (MCT) and long chain (LCT).  The chain refers to the length, or number of carbon atoms, of three fatty acids attached to the backbone.  This chain length varies with SCTs having between 1-5 carbons, MCTs having between 6-12 carbons, and LCTs having 12 or more carbon atoms.  The differing chain lengths have a direct effect on the properties of the molecules, like boiling point and viscosity, as well as their interactions in the body.

When discussing the characteristics of MCT products it is important to consider not only chain length, but product sourcing and production as well.  Bulk oils, like coconut oil, contain a mixture of SCT, MCT and LCT molecules.  The ratios of these different molecules greatly affects the product characteristics as well as how the oils are absorbed by the body.  For instance, MCTs are quickly converted into ketones, a source of energy, whereas larger molecules like LCTs need to be metabolised by enzymes and reside within the body longer.  Some questions of safety of vaporizing coconut oil or MCT can be addressed by understanding the residence time of molecules within the lungs.  Some studies have shown that because MCTs are quickly converted into smaller molecules this reduces some side effects of concern with mixed bulk oils.  As well, some MCT products are refined to contain a specific ratio of known chain length molecules and are created consistently batch to batch.  This known molecular content provides consistency in effectiveness for increasing bioavailability and for shelf life.  


What is Vape Ready Technology?

Vape Ready Technology (VRT) is a drop in solution created specifically for adding terpenes and natural flavors to your distillate or isolate vapes.  VRT is a patent-pending formulation of natural, plant based oils with terpene profiles that is mixed with your cannabinoids prior to loading a vape cartridge.   

The VRT mixing agent is a specific formulation of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) derived from natural, plant based oils. Fractional distillation of the bulk oils are used to select for specific molecular mass MCTs.  The formulae was created to increase the bioavailability of active agents (cannabinoids and terpenes) and to reduce the astringency or harshness of the terpenes.  VRT contains a ratio of known chain lengths that are consistent batch to batch creating a product with known characteristics.  

Stock VRT products are created to add to concentrates or distillate in a ratio of 25% VRT to 75% distillate.  Custom formulations can be generated to reduce or increase the amount of mixing agent utilized as well as for addition to isolates like powderized CBD.  VRT Zero is the MCT formulation without addition of terpenes and can be utilized in formulation of cannabinoids and terpenes. 

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